Studies on Some Aspects of Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism in the Camel (Camelus dromedarius)

Six camels (3 males and 3 females) each about 6 years old were used. They were fed fodder (Sorghum bicolar) for 5 days as adaptation period. Blood was taken from jugular vein at the end of this period after which they were starved for 96 hrs. Water was available ad libitum, and samples of blood were daily taken during the starvation period. Again the camels were fed fodder for one week and two camels (one male and one female) were sacrificed for collection of tissues. The remaining 4 camels were fed fodder plus grains (Fatarita) 3 kilos per day for one week (carbohydrate supplemented diet). Two camels on the carbohydrate supplemented diet group were sacrificed for collection of tissues. The last camels were fasted for 72 hrs and sacrificed as the fasting group for collection of tissues. Studies were concerned on the concentration in the blood or plasma for the following glucose, urea, proteins, total lipids, ketone bodies, and free fatty acids. Fasting increased, concentration of urea, proteins, lipids, ketone bodies and free fatty acids, but glucose concentration was decreased. Glycogen content was higher in the liver from camels fed fodder plus grains. The content of glycogen in kidneys did not change with nutritional states. As expected, fat content of liver, kidneys, hump and mesentric fat of the camels was higher in tissues from camels fed on fodder plus grains. Amylase activity was determined in tissues along the alimentary tract and in pancreas. The higher levels of enzyme were found in the jejunum. The activity of the G-6-PDH and 6-phospho-gluconate dehydrogenase in the camels liver hump and mesenteric was investigated. It was found that the group fed fodder plus grains possessed the highest activities. Citrate cleavage enzyme, malic enzyme and fatty acid synthase enzyme were determined in liver, hump and mesentric fat. The level of hexokinase and glucokinase in liver of camels under different nutritional state were determined. It was noticed that higher activity was found in the liver of fasted and those fed fodder plus grains camels. No glucokinase activity was detected in the liver of the camels. Fructose - 1,6-diphosphatase enzyme was studied in liver and kidneys. The level of nutrition affected the activity of the enzyme in a way that fasted camels liver and kidneys had the higher activity followed by the camels fed fodder and the lowest activity in the group of camels fed fodder plus grains. The activity of glucose- 6 - phosphates was determined in liver and kidney. Fasted camels had higher activity than camels fed fodder plus grains. The activity of G-6- Pase in liver was 10 folds that of the kidneys. Gluconeogenic capacity of camels liver and kidneys was studied. More glucose was synthesized from lactate followed by propionate, glutamate and glycerol. But kidney slices showed higher glucose synthesis from lactate followed by glutamate, propionate and glycerol. Activities of some lipogenic enzymes (CCE, ME, G-6-PDH, FAS and isocitrate DH) were determined at different parts of the hump (top, middle and bottom). It was found that the activities of these enzymes were higher in the bottom of the hump followed by the middle part and finally the top of the hump.

Six camels (3 males and 3 females) each about 6 years old were used. They were fed fodder (Sorghum bicolar) for 5 days as adaptation period. Blood was taken from jugular vein at the end of this period after which they were starved for 96 hrs. Water was available ad libitum, and samples of blood were daily taken during the starvation period. Again the camels were fed fodder for one week and two camels (one male and one female) were sacrificed for collection of tissues. The remaining 4 camels were fed fodder plus grains (Fatarita) 3 kilos per day for one week (carbohydrate supplemented diet). Two camels on the carbohydrate supplemented diet group were sacrificed for collection of tissues. The last camels were fasted for 72 hrs and sacrificed as the fasting group for collection of tissues. Studies were concerned on the concentration in the blood or plasma for the following glucose, urea, proteins, total lipids, ketone bodies, and free fatty acids. Fasting increased, concentration of urea, proteins, lipids, ketone bodies and free fatty acids, but glucose concentration was decreased. Glycogen content was higher in the liver from camels fed fodder plus grains. The content of glycogen in kidneys did not change with nutritional states. As expected, fat content of liver, kidneys, hump and mesentric fat of the camels was higher in tissues from camels fed on fodder plus grains. Amylase activity was determined in tissues along the alimentary tract and in pancreas. The higher levels of enzyme were found in the jejunum. The activity of the G-6-PDH and 6-phospho-gluconate dehydrogenase in the camels liver hump and mesenteric was investigated. It was found that the group fed fodder plus grains possessed the highest activities. Citrate cleavage enzyme, malic enzyme and fatty acid synthase enzyme were determined in liver, hump and mesentric fat. The level of hexokinase and glucokinase in liver of camels under different nutritional state were determined. It was noticed that higher activity was found in the liver of fasted and those fed fodder plus grains camels. No glucokinase activity was detected in the liver of the camels. Fructose - 1,6-diphosphatase enzyme was studied in liver and kidneys. The level of nutrition affected the activity of the enzyme in a way that fasted camels liver and kidneys had the higher activity followed by the camels fed fodder and the lowest activity in the group of camels fed fodder plus grains. The activity of glucose- 6 - phosphates was determined in liver and kidney. Fasted camels had higher activity than camels fed fodder plus grains. The activity of G-6- Pase in liver was 10 folds that of the kidneys. Gluconeogenic capacity of camels liver and kidneys was studied. More glucose was synthesized from lactate followed by propionate, glutamate and glycerol. But kidney slices showed higher glucose synthesis from lactate followed by glutamate, propionate and glycerol. Activities of some lipogenic enzymes (CCE, ME, G-6-PDH, FAS and isocitrate DH) were determined at different parts of the hump (top, middle and bottom). It was found that the activities of these enzymes were higher in the bottom of the hump followed by the middle part and finally the top of the hump.