Studies on Commiphora myrrha (Morr Higazi)

Commiphora myrrha oleo-gum resin (Morr Higazi) was studied for its toxicity to Nubian goat kids and pregnant goats and for its potent foetotoxic/teratogenic effects on the foetuses. Nine of twelve clinically healthy Nubian goat kids of either sex were given repeated daily oral doses of 5 gm/kg B.wt. C. myrrha poisoning was characterized by jaundice chewing movements of jaws, grinding of teeth, salivation, soft faeces, inappetence, ataxia, dyspnoea and recumbence. Lesions were widespread congestion and haemorrhages, diffuse hepatic fatty change, distension of the gall bladder with bile, catarrhal enteritis, renal tubular cell degeneration and necrosis and splenic haemosiderosis. These changes were accompanied by anaemia, leucopenia and significant increases in activity of serum alkaline phosphate (ALP), in concentration of bilirubin, triglycerides, cholesterol and creatinine and decreases in the levels of serum total protein and albumin. Oral administration of C. myrrha at 1.5 gm/kg/day to pregnant goats during 2-3 months of pregnancy caused maternal toxicity without signs of abortion. There was no foetal toxicity, teratogenic effect of C. myrrha at the tested dosage level. C. myrrha was fed to rats at 2, 5, 10 and 20% of the basic diet. Rat on 10% and 20% C. myrrha food exhibited depression, soft faeces, abdominal pain and dyspnoea prior to death. Lesions were fatty change, necrosis of the hepatocytes, catarrhal enteritis, renal tubular cell degeneration, splenic haemosiderosis and lymphocytic infiltration in the hepatic portal renal cortex, intestinal lamina propria and between the cardiac muscle. These changes were correlated with alterations in haematology and chemistry. Two and 5% C. myrrha diets were not toxic to rats. The ethanolic extract of C. myrrha was given to rats by different routes at l00 mg/rat/day per os, 500 mg/rat/day per os, l00 mg (i.m), 50 mg/rat/day i.m and 50 mg intraperitoneally (i.p). Dose levels of 500 mg/rat/day per os, l00 mg/rat/day and l00 mg/rat/day i.m. were toxic to rats. Toxicity was characterized by soft faeces, marked depression, hesitating gait, hind limb weakness and ruffled hair. Lesions were fatty change and yellow discoloration of the liver, enteritis, renal tubular cell degeneration, splenic haemosiderosis, haemomyositis in rats given the ethanolic extract by i.m route and patchy perito rats injected via i.p route with the ethanolic extract. These finding correlated with significant increases in serum ALP alanine transaminase (ALT) activities, in bilirubin, cholesterol and creatinine concentrations and decreases in total protein and albumin levels. Dosage at 100 mg/rat/day per os and 50 mg/rat/day i.m. were not lethal to rats. Anti-microbial efficacies of petroleum ether and ethanol extracts from C. nagainst , Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus albus and Candida albicans were estimated.

Commiphora myrrha oleo-gum resin (Morr Higazi) was studied for its toxicity to Nubian goat kids and pregnant goats and for its potent foetotoxic/teratogenic effects on the foetuses. Nine of twelve clinically healthy Nubian goat kids of either sex were given repeated daily oral doses of 5 gm/kg B.wt. C. myrrha poisoning was characterized by jaundice chewing movements of jaws, grinding of teeth, salivation, soft faeces, inappetence, ataxia, dyspnoea and recumbence. Lesions were widespread congestion and haemorrhages, diffuse hepatic fatty change, distension of the gall bladder with bile, catarrhal enteritis, renal tubular cell degeneration and necrosis and splenic haemosiderosis. These changes were accompanied by anaemia, leucopenia and significant increases in activity of serum alkaline phosphate (ALP), in concentration of bilirubin, triglycerides, cholesterol and creatinine and decreases in the levels of serum total protein and albumin. Oral administration of C. myrrha at 1.5 gm/kg/day to pregnant goats during 2-3 months of pregnancy caused maternal toxicity without signs of abortion. There was no foetal toxicity, teratogenic effect of C. myrrha at the tested dosage level. C. myrrha was fed to rats at 2, 5, 10 and 20% of the basic diet. Rat on 10% and 20% C. myrrha food exhibited depression, soft faeces, abdominal pain and dyspnoea prior to death. Lesions were fatty change, necrosis of the hepatocytes, catarrhal enteritis, renal tubular cell degeneration, splenic haemosiderosis and lymphocytic infiltration in the hepatic portal renal cortex, intestinal lamina propria and between the cardiac muscle. These changes were correlated with alterations in haematology and chemistry. Two and 5% C. myrrha diets were not toxic to rats. The ethanolic extract of C. myrrha was given to rats by different routes at l00 mg/rat/day per os, 500 mg/rat/day per os, l00 mg (i.m), 50 mg/rat/day i.m and 50 mg intraperitoneally (i.p). Dose levels of 500 mg/rat/day per os, l00 mg/rat/day and l00 mg/rat/day i.m. were toxic to rats. Toxicity was characterized by soft faeces, marked depression, hesitating gait, hind limb weakness and ruffled hair. Lesions were fatty change and yellow discoloration of the liver, enteritis, renal tubular cell degeneration, splenic haemosiderosis, haemomyositis in rats given the ethanolic extract by i.m route and patchy perito rats injected via i.p route with the ethanolic extract. These finding correlated with significant increases in serum ALP alanine transaminase (ALT) activities, in bilirubin, cholesterol and creatinine concentrations and decreases in total protein and albumin levels. Dosage at 100 mg/rat/day per os and 50 mg/rat/day i.m. were not lethal to rats. Anti-microbial efficacies of petroleum ether and ethanol extracts from C. nagainst , Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus albus and Candida albicans were estimated.