Establishment of Standard X-Ray Qualities to Be Used In Diagnostic Level at Ssdls

The objective of the present work is to modify x-ray machine (used by the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory in Sudan) to produce x-ray qualities suitable for the calibration at diagnostic level. It based on experimental evaluations. The importance of this study appears in development of protocols to calibrate the instruments used in diagnostic radiology in by good response of the...

Some Applications of Quaternions in Physical World

We have used quaternions to develop a mathematical description of the basic laws of motion, namely, Newton\\\\\\\'s laws, Maxwell equations, Schrödinger equation, Dirac equation, Klein-Gordon and Navier-Stocke\\\\\\\'s equation. We have shown that these equations of motion can be unified when formulated in terms of quaternions. It interesting to notice that the wave equation (Klein-Gordon)...

Assessment of Radiation Doses from Ingestion of Common Foodstuffs Consumed In Sudan

A comprehensive survey was conducted of different radionuclides activities in foodstuff consumed in Khartoum state. In order to provide an overview of radiological implications to the public, 77 samples of/ vegetables, fruits, meats, cereals, milk and fermented milk, cans, additives, others and water were collected from different sites. The concentrations of many radionuclides in the food...

Estimation of Scattered Radiation at nearby Endocrine Glands during Chest x-ray Examination

The current work investigates the posterior-anterior (PA), anterior-posterior and lateral projections of the x-ray chest examination. Radiation dose scattered at positions corresponding to adrenal, thyroid, pancreas, and gonad glands (ovaries, and testes) was estimated using software DoseCal as compared with the entrance skin doses. Data about patients had been collected from hospitals, using...

Modeling of Bulk Hetero Junction Solar Cell

The efficiency of bulk heterojunction solar cell is studied by optimizing the open circuit voltage, and by taking semi empirical calculations from polythiophene (PT). The (PT) is doped with some alkyls (methyl and hexyl) and two Halogens elements (Iodine and Bromine) The results show that the efficiency of a solar cell of PT with hexyl group substituted for hydrogen atom is decreased by...

Occupational Dose Measurement in Interventional Cardiology Dosimetry Comparison Study

The number of cardiology interventional procedures has significantly increased recently. This is due to the reliability of the diagnostic equipment to diagnose many heart diseases. In the procedures the x-ray used results in increasing radiation doses to the staff. The cardiologists and other staff members in interventional cardiology are usually working close to the area under examination and...

Cryocooler: Theory & Applications

In this work we study the Cryocooler (high cooling refrigerators) to describe the current issue of applied physics that working with the theories of thermodynamics (the laws of zero, the first law and the second). The study focused on the 2nd law and its applications such as striling engine, striling cycle, carnot cycle, refrigeration cycle, engine heat, heat pump, cooling and striling types...

On the Effect of [Coum 500.Rh6G]Dye Laser Produced by Pumping Nitrogen Laser on Silver Nitrate (AgNO3)

The work in this thesis aims to investigate two types of reference dyes, the Rhodamine6G dye and the Coumarin500 prepared in four different concentrations. A dye laser was obtained which is pumped by 337nm nitrogen laser in standard grazing cavity. The use of different concentrations (0.075-0.2, and 0.1875-0.4 mg/ml) of the dye solvent resulted in different ranges of wavelengths (577-579) nm...

Applications of Fiber Optics In Telecommunication

In this study I have made a review about the communication systems, which appeared over the years and showed that the basic motivation behind each new form of communication were to improve the transmission fidelity, to increase the data rate. I have pointed about fiber optics communications and the important developments that have been taken place, which revolutionized the field of optical...

Study of female patients doses in radiographic x-ray examination of abdomen, chest and pelvis

The aim of this work was to estimate the entrance surface dose (ESD),organ doses, the effective doses (ED) and the body organ dose (OD) for chest ,pelvis and abdomen for female patients . The study was carried out in Khartoum ,Bahry and Omdurman hospitals . A total of 122 procedure for the three examinations were analyzed .X-ray machine was first calibrated using RadCheck which was placed in...